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Journal of Software:2021.32(4):1165-1185

后量子密码算法的侧信道攻击与防御综述
吴伟彬,刘哲,杨昊,张吉鹏
(南京航空航天大学 计算机科学与技术学院, 江苏 南京 211106)
Survey of Side-channel Attacks and Countermeasures on Post-quantum Cryptography
WU Wei-Bin,LIU Zhe,YANG Hao,ZHANG Ji-Peng
(College of Computer Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106, China)
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Received:May 23, 2020    Revised:August 14, 2020
> 中文摘要: 为了解决量子计算对公钥密码安全的威胁,后量子密码成为密码领域的前沿焦点研究问题.后量子密码通过数学理论保证了算法的安全性,但在具体实现和应用中易受侧信道攻击,这严重威胁到后量子密码的安全性.基于美国NIST第2轮候选算法和中国CACR公钥密码竞赛第2轮的候选算法,针对基于格、基于编码、基于哈希、基于多变量等多种后量子密码算法进行分类调研,分析其抗侧信道攻击的安全性现状和现有防护策略.为了深入分析后量子密码的侧信道攻击方法,按照算法核心算子和攻击类型进行分类,总结了针对各类后量子密码常用的攻击手段、攻击点及攻击评价指标.进一步地,根据攻击类型和攻击点,梳理了现有防护策略及相应的开销代价.最后,根据攻击方法、防护手段和防护代价提出了一些安全建议,并且还分析了未来潜在的侧信道攻击手段与防御方案.
Abstract:To solve the threat of quantum computing to the security of public-key cryptography, post-quantum cryptography has become a frontier focus in the field of cryptography. Post-quantum cryptography guarantees the security of the algorithm through mathematical theories, but it is vulnerable to side-channel attacks in specific implementation and applications, which will seriously threaten the security of post-quantum cryptography. This study is based on the round 2 candidates in the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process and the round 2 candidates in the CACR public key cryptography competition in China. First, classification investigations of various post-quantum cryptographic algorithms are conducted, including lattice-based, code-based, hash-based, and multivariate-based cryptographic algorithms. Then, their security status against side-channel attacks and existing protection strategies are analyzed. To analyze the methods of side-channel attack against post-quantum cryptography, it is summarized that the commonly used post-quantum cryptography side-channel attack methods, attack targets, and attack evaluation indexes for various post-quantum cryptography according to the classification of core operators and attack types. Furthermore, following the attack types and attack targets, the existing countermeasures for attack and the costs of defense strategies are sorted out. Finally, in the conclusion part, some security suggestions are put forward according to the attack method, protection means, and protection cost, and also the potential side-channel attack methods and defense strategies in the future are analyzed.
文章编号:     中图分类号:TP309    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(61802180);江苏省自然科学基金(BK20180421);国家密码发展基金(MMJJ20180105);中央高校基础研究基金(NE2018106) 国家自然科学基金(61802180);江苏省自然科学基金(BK20180421);国家密码发展基金(MMJJ20180105);中央高校基础研究基金(NE2018106)
Foundation items:National Natural Science Foundation of China (61802180); Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (BK20180421); National Cryptography Development Fund (MMJJ20180105); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (NE2018106)
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吴伟彬,刘哲,杨昊,张吉鹏.后量子密码算法的侧信道攻击与防御综述.软件学报,2021,32(4):1165-1185

WU Wei-Bin,LIU Zhe,YANG Hao,ZHANG Ji-Peng.Survey of Side-channel Attacks and Countermeasures on Post-quantum Cryptography.Journal of Software,2021,32(4):1165-1185