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Journal of Software:2019.30(1):142-163

数据模型及其发展历程
信俊昌,王国仁,李国徽,高云君,张志强
(东北大学 计算机科学与工程学院, 辽宁 沈阳 110819;北京理工大学 计算机学院, 北京 100081;华中科技大学 计算机科学与技术学院, 湖北 武汉 430074;浙江大学 计算机科学与技术学院, 浙江 杭州 310058;浙江财经大学 信息管理与工程学院, 浙江 杭州 310018)
State of the Art Data Model and Its Research Progress
XIN Jun-Chang,WANG Guo-Ren,LI Guo-Hui,GAO Yun-Jun,ZHANG Zhi-Qiang
(School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China;School of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China;School of Computer Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China;College of Computer Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;School of Information Management and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China)
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Received:July 02, 2018    Revised:August 15, 2018
> 中文摘要: 数据库是数据管理的技术,是计算机学科的重要分支.经过近半个世纪的发展,数据库技术形成了坚实的理论基础、成熟的商业产品和广泛的应用领域.数据模型描述了数据库中数据的存储方式和操作方式.从数据组织形式,可以将数据模型分为结构化模型、半结构化模型、OLAP分析模型和大数据模型.20世纪60年代中后期到90年代初,结构化模型最早被提出,其主要包括层次模型、网状模型、关系模型和面向对象模型等.20世纪90年代末期,随着互联网应用和科学计算等复杂应用的快速发展,开始出现半结构化模型,包括XML模型、JSON模型和图模型等.21世纪,随着电子商务、商业智能等应用的不断发展,数据分析模型成为研究热点,主要包括关系型ROLAP和多维型MOLAP.2010年以来,随着大数据工业应用的快速发展,以NoSQL和NewSQL数据库系统为代表的大数据模型成为新的研究热点.对上述数据模型进行了综述,并选取每个模型的典型数据库系统进行了性能的分析.
Abstract:Database management technology is an important branch of computer science. After the development of nearly half a century, database technology has formed a solid theoretical foundation, mature commercial products, and a wide range of applications. The data model describes the storage and operation of data in the database. According to the organizational form of data, there are four types of data models:structured models, semi-structured models, OLAP analysis models, and big data models. From the late 1960s to the early 1990s, the structured models were first proposed, which mainly includes hierarchical model, network model, relational model, and object-oriented model. In the late 1990s, with the rapid development of complex applications such as Internet applications and scientific computing, semi-structured models began to emerge, including XML models, JSON models, and graph models. In the new century, with the continuous development of applications such as e-commerce and business intelligence, the data analysis model has become a research hotspot, mainly including relational ROLAP and multi-dimensional MOLAP. Since 2010, with the rapid development of big data industry applications, the big data model represented by NoSQL and NewSQL database systems has become a new research hotspot. This article summarizes the above data models, and analyzes the performance of typical database system selected from each model.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金(61472069,61732003,U1401256,61729201,61572215,61522208,61672181,61202090,61272184);黑龙江省科学基金(LC2017029,F2016005);哈尔滨市青年科技创新人才研究专项基金(2016RAXXJ036,2015RQQXJ067) 国家自然科学基金(61472069,61732003,U1401256,61729201,61572215,61522208,61672181,61202090,61272184);黑龙江省科学基金(LC2017029,F2016005);哈尔滨市青年科技创新人才研究专项基金(2016RAXXJ036,2015RQQXJ067)
Foundation items:National Natural Science Foundation of China (61472069, 61732003, U1401256, 61572215, 61522208, 61672181, 61202090, 61272184); Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (LC2017029, F2016005); Harbin Special Fund for Young Scientists and Technicians (2016RAXXJ036, 2015RQQXJ067)
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信俊昌,王国仁,李国徽,高云君,张志强.数据模型及其发展历程.软件学报,2019,30(1):142-163

XIN Jun-Chang,WANG Guo-Ren,LI Guo-Hui,GAO Yun-Jun,ZHANG Zhi-Qiang.State of the Art Data Model and Its Research Progress.Journal of Software,2019,30(1):142-163