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Journal of Software:2019.30(1):62-79

软件过程与管理方法综述
荣国平,张贺,邵栋,王青
(计算机软件新技术国家重点实验室(南京大学), 江苏 南京 210093;中国科学院 软件研究所, 北京 100190)
Survey of Process and Management Approaches for Software Development
RONG Guo-Ping,ZHANG He,SHAO Dong,WANG Qing
(State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology(Nanjing University), Nanjing 210093, China;Insititute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China)
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Received:July 02, 2018    Revised:September 25, 2018
> 中文摘要: 工程化软件开发需要对软件开发整个过程进行有效的组织和管理,由此产生了一系列软件开发组织和管理方法,其主要目的是形成一种载体,用以积累和传递关于软件开发的经验教训.然而,由于软件开发的一些天然特性(比如复杂性和不可见性)的存在,使得描述软件开发过程的软件开发与组织方法也天然地带着一定的抽象性.由此带来了很多概念上的误导和实践中的争论,影响了上述目的的达成.例如,对于究竟该如何选择和定义合适的软件开发过程以更好地满足某个特定项目的要求,目前仍然缺少可靠的手段.甚至有些面向工业界的调研报告表明:在实际软件项目开发中,过程改进(例如引入新的工具或者方法)的主要驱动力是佚闻.试图厘清软件组织与管理话题的若干核心概念,系统梳理软件组织和管理方法的特征,并且以软件发展的历史为主线,介绍软件组织与管理方法的历史沿革,整理出这种历史沿革背后的缘由.在此基础上,讨论和总结若干发现,以期为研究者和实践者提供参考.
Abstract:Software development via engineering approaches requires effective organization and management of the entire software development process, which resulted in a series of methods to organize and manage the development of software systems. Its original intention is to form a carrier to accumulate and deliver experiences and lessons learned about software development. However, due to some of the intrinsic characteristics (e.g. complexity and invisibility) of software, the software development and organization methods that describe the software development process also naturally have a certain degree of abstraction. As a consequence, many conceptual misleadings and meaningless debates in practice have affected the achievement of the above objectives. For example, it is still lack of reliable means for how to select and define the right software development process to better meet the requirements of a particular project. Moreover, some industry-oriented research reports indicate that the main driving force for process improvement (i.e., the introduction of new tools or methods) in real software projects is anecdotes. This study attempts to clarify some core concepts related to software organization and management, then systematically sorts out the characteristics of software organization and management methods. Meanwhile, based on the history of software development, the reason behind of the method evolution is figured out. On this basis, several findings are discussed and summarized in order to provide references for researchers and practitioners.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金(61572251);南京大学计算机软件新技术国家重点实验室开放课题(KFKT2017A13) 国家自然科学基金(61572251);南京大学计算机软件新技术国家重点实验室开放课题(KFKT2017A13)
Foundation items:National Natural Science Foundation of China (61572251); State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology (Nanjing University) (KFKT2017A13)
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荣国平,张贺,邵栋,王青.软件过程与管理方法综述.软件学报,2019,30(1):62-79

RONG Guo-Ping,ZHANG He,SHAO Dong,WANG Qing.Survey of Process and Management Approaches for Software Development.Journal of Software,2019,30(1):62-79