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Journal of Software:2018.29(1):176-195

互联网自治域间IP源地址验证技术综述
贾溢豪,任罡,刘莹
(清华大学 计算机科学与技术系, 北京 100084;清华信息科学与技术国家实验室(清华大学), 北京 100084;清华大学 网络科学与网络空间研究院, 北京 100084)
Review of Internet Inter-Domain IP Source Address Validation Technology
JIA Yi-Hao,REN Gang,LIU Ying
(Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology(Tsinghua University), Beijing 100084, China;Institute for Network Sciences and Cyberspace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)
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Received:March 16, 2016    Revised:March 27, 2017
> 中文摘要: 当前,互联网是基于目的地址转发,对源地址不作验证.而互联网很多安全问题的根源在于源地址的不可信.另一方面,随着互联网规模和复杂度的增大以及对政治、经济利益影响的加深,域间路由系统对互联网的稳定运行起着愈发关键的作用.美国国土安全部将域间路由安全问题列入了美国信息安全的国家战略.近年来,以IP源地址伪造为主要方式的分布式拒绝服务攻击不断地对互联网的安全性和可用性造成极大的破坏,这其中,以跨越多个管理域和国家的攻击最为频繁.因此,建立以自治域为单位的源地址验证防御体系,对互联网的安全意义重大.尽管在相关的标准和研究领域已经提出了多种域间源地址验证技术,但是目前仍未有适用于大规模部署的技术方案.对域间源地址验证的已有研究和标准进展进行了细致的梳理.首先,分析了源地址安全性缺失的原因及后果,结合国际标准化领域的研究现状,指出了域间源地址验证的重要意义;其次,从域间源地址验证技术的特征类别入手,对已有各类研究成果的技术原理和优缺点进行了深入的总结,对研究的演进脉络进行了详细的分析,并在此基础上提出了目前域间源地址验证技术面临的困境及原因;最后,提出了域间源地址验证技术未来可能的研究发展方向及设计原则建议,为后续相关研究工作的开展提供了参考.
Abstract:The current Internet is based on the destination address forwarding in which the source address remains unverified. However, one of the root causes of Internet security problems is the untrustworthy source address. As the Internet plays an increasingly important role in political and economic fields, the security of the Inter-domain Internet becomes more crucial. For instance, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has included the Inter-domain routing security in the national strategy of US information security. In recent years, innovation and evolution of the Internet are significantly undermined by the IP spoofing based distributed denial of service attacks, most of which are Inter-domain and transnational. Therefore, the Inter-domain source address validation becomes extremely important for Internet security. Although there are many techniques proposed in the relevant fields, none of them are appropriate for large-scale deployment. This paper reviews the existing research and standard progress of Inter-domain source address validation technology. First, the reasons and consequences of the lack of source address security are analyzed, and the significance of source address validation is illustrated by examining the progress of the technical standardization. Next, the advantages and disadvantages of various existing important source address validation methods are summarized. Then, the difficulties and challenges faced by the current Inter-domain source address validation technology are discussed. Finally, the prospective research directions and design principles are proposed as a reference for potential future works.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金(61772307,61402257);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)(2009CB320500,2009CB320501);清华大学自主科研项目(2014z21051) 国家自然科学基金(61772307,61402257);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)(2009CB320500,2009CB320501);清华大学自主科研项目(2014z21051)
Foundation items:National Natural Science Foundation of China (61772307, 61402257); National Basic Research Program of China (973) (2009CB320500, 2009CB320501); Tsinghua University Self-Determined Project (2014z21051)
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贾溢豪,任罡,刘莹.互联网自治域间IP源地址验证技术综述.软件学报,2018,29(1):176-195

JIA Yi-Hao,REN Gang,LIU Ying.Review of Internet Inter-Domain IP Source Address Validation Technology.Journal of Software,2018,29(1):176-195