量子计算理论上有望解决诸多经典难解问题, 近年来量子计算机的快速发展正推动这一理论进入实践. 然而, 当前硬件中繁多的错误会造成计算结果出错, 严重限制了量子计算机解决实际问题的能力. 量子计算系统软件位于应用与硬件之间, 充分挖掘系统软件在硬件错误减缓方面的潜力, 对于近期实现有实用价值的量子计算而言至关重要. 由此, 近期涌现了一批量子计算系统软件研究工作. 将这些工作归纳入编译器、运行时系统和调试器3个范畴, 通过对它们的分析总结, 梳理量子计算系统软件的研究现状, 揭示其在硬件错误减缓方面的重要作用. 并对未来的研究方向进行展望.
Quantum computing is expected to solve many typical and difficult problems in theory. The rapid development of quantum computers in recent years is pushing the theory into practice. However, numerous errors in current hardware can cause incorrect computational results, which severely limit the ability of quantum computers to solve practical problems. Quantum computing system software lies between applications and hardware. In addition, tapping the full potential of the system software in mitigating hardware errors is crucial to realizing practical quantum computing in the near future. As a result, many research works on quantum computing system software have recently emerged. This study classifies them into three categories: compilers, runtime systems, and debuggers. Through an in-depth analysis of these works, the study sorts out the research status of quantum computing system software and reveals their important roles in mitigating hardware errors. This study also looks forward to future research directions.