近些年, 软件构造、运行和演化过程面临着诸多新需求, 例如开发测试环境需要高效切换或配置、应用隔离、减少资源消耗、提高测试和部署效率等, 给开发人员开发和维护软件带来了巨大的负担. 容器技术有希望将开发人员从繁重的开发运维负担中解脱出来, 尤其是Docker作为目前工业界的容器行业标准, 近年来逐渐成为学术界一个热门的研究领域. 为了帮助研究人员全面准确地理解当前Docker容器研究的现状和趋势, 使用系统文献综述(systematic literature review)的方法搜集了75篇该领域最新的高水平论文, 进行了详细的分析和总结. 首先, 使用定量研究方法调查了Docker容器研究的基本现状, 包括研究数量、研究质量、研究领域和研究方式. 其次, 首次提出了面向Docker容器研究的分类框架, 分别从核心、平台和支持3个方面对当前研究进行了系统性地归纳和梳理. 最后, 讨论了Docker容器技术的发展趋势并总结了7个未来的研究方向.
In recent years, software construction, operation, and evolution have encountered many new requirements, such as the need for efficient switching or configuration in development and testing environments, application isolation, resource consumption reduction, and higher efficiency of testing and deployment. These requirements pose great challenges to developers in developing and maintaining software. Container technology has the potential of releasing developers from the heavy workload of development and maintenance. Of particular note, Docker, as the de facto industrial standard for containers, has recently become a popular research area in the academic community. To help researchers understand the status and trends of research on Docker containers, this study conducts a systematic literature review by collecting 75 high-level papers in this field. First, quantitative methods are used to investigate the basic status of research on Docker containers, including research quantity, research quality, research areas, and research methods. Second, the first classification framework for research on Docker containers is presented in this study, and the current studies are systematically classified and reviewed from the dimensions of the core, platform, and support. Finally, the development trends of Docker container technology are discussed, and seven future research directions are summarized.